Sustainable development

The resources of the planet not being inexhaustible, the population growth, all the more combined later with that of the individual consumption, aroused for a long time reflections and concerns. This is the origin of the idea of sustainable development.

Today, the sustainable development is a topical subject. Indeed, we all heard about this subject, whether it is through the television or the media.

A.    Definition:

It became a subject mattering in our society. So, the sustainable development was defined in several ways, but the definition most often quoted is of our common future, so known as the Report Brundtland: «the sustainable development is a development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of the future generations to be answered their own needs. »
All the definitions of the sustainable development require that we see the world as a system in the space.

In fact, it's good to be physically healthy, but what if you are poor and you don't have access to education? It's good to have a steady income, but what if the air you breathe is unclean?
            So, the concept of sustainable development is a serious concept and is not recent. And all people must be responsible.

B.     History of the sustainable development

The sustainable development began with the industrial revolution. In fact, this revolution changed the lifestyles of the populations with an increase of the wealth. So, companies have a single purpose to be reached (affected), which was to produce more to be more competitive without caring about the environment. But a few years later, people noticed that this production has negative effects on the environment. People over-exploited natural resources such as the water, the oil or the gas.

                                                                                            II.            The pillars of the durability

The sustainable development requires the environmental responsibility, the economic responsibility and the social or cultural responsibility. Besides so that a community is viable, there should be a link between the environmental responsibility and the economic responsibility.
So that a community is livable, there should be a link between the environmental responsibility and the social responsibility / cultural.
And for a community is fair, there should be a link between the economic responsibility and the social responsibility

There are several aspects different from the sustainable development which can and must be considered. It is about a new concept called a green economy, in which three pillars of the sustainable development are mentioned.

As regards the environmental dimension, we can say that we have to protect and improve the long-term environment. That is why we have to use the sustainable management of natural resources and try to have an ecological balance. For example, we have to sort out waste, reduce CO2 emissions by using fewer cars.

The social dimension of the sustainable development is to satisfy the human needs (health, consumption). The purpose of this dimension is to fight against the exclusion and the poverty. We try to reduce the disparities.

The economic dimensionis to develop the growth and the economic efficiency to encourage the creation of wealth for all thanks to long-lasting (sustainable) methods of production. It is the reason why there is a development of the fair trade.

The concept of sustainable development needs these three aspects to work and be stable. If one of these components is absent, the development will not be long-lasting (sustainable).
For example, a development which does not take into account the environmental dimension will be translated by a base of degraded resources.

The sustainable development bases on three fundamental principles:

The solidarity: between countries, between peoples and between generations.
For example: save raw materials for the biggest advantages
The Warning / caution: we must be careful when we want to make a decision.
The participation: the participation of all, whatever is its profession or the social status. People must be responsible

                                                                          III.            Actors of sustainable development:

Today, people realize the importance of the sustainable development. Thus they try to react. That is why people change their habits and adopt an ecological behavior. We can see this change at every level (governments, consumers and Producers).

A.              The governments:

a.      The Club of Rome
It is a non-profit organization of Swiss law established in 1968. It is led (driven) by a group of experts having for objective to think about a new approach of the problems of our space.
Its fears concern the dangers which present an exponential economic and demographic growth towards the depletion of resources, towards the accumulation of the pollution, and the overexploitation of the natural systems.
The Meadows report, published in 1972 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT), entitled The Limits of growth, activated(started) numerous critical reactions maybe instigated in France by the particularly provocative translation of its title: no more the growth.
How, indeed, intend to stop(arrest) voluntarily the growth while the vital needs for a part(party) of the humanity are not satisfied, and while there are wide pockets of poverty in the rich countries?
Economic development and environmental protection they are paradoxical as the report (relationship) tended to demonstrate it?

b.      The Agenda 21:
It is about an action plan for the sustainable development created in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil. 173 countries signed this text. The Agenda 21 has for objective to fight against the poverty in the world and the global warming. Countries want to develop the united economy. The agenda 21 is applied in departments and regions.
For example in Rennes, the mayor decided to build an eco district house in 2001. These houses are environment-friendly thanks to solar panels.

c.       The Kyoto protocol
The Kyoto protocol, in the Agreement (Convention) – frame (executive) of the United Nations on climate change (CCNUCC) is an international treaty which imposes binding obligations (bonds) on industrialized countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is an international agreement. This text created in 1997 to Kyoto, in Japan.
This law obliges the industrialists of countries to reduce their greenhouse gas. The main objective of the Kyoto protocol is to limit the broadcasts (emissions, issues) of the main anthropological greenhouse gases (GES) so as to reflect the underlying national differences of greenhouse gas emissions, the wealth, and the capacity to make reductions.

d.      Grenelle (Multiparty debate) on the environment
It is a set of political meetings organized in France in 2007.
Objective: make decisions regarding environment and regarding sustainable development.
Fields of intervention are among others:
·         Climate change
·         Conservation of the biodiversity and the natural resources
·         Institution of a respectful environment of the health
·         Adoption of a mode of production and sustainable consumption
·         Construction of an ecological democracy
·         Promotion(Class) of the ecological modes(fashions) of development favorable to the employment(use), the competitiveness

B.              The consumers:

To participate in the sustainable development the consumers have to have an ecological behavior.
Today people are more and more aware (conscious) of dangers on the environment bound (connected) to their consumptions. Thus the consumers want to be responsible and to committed (hired). So they want to have information on products.

a.    Transport:
Nowadays people travel a lot. Thus to participate in the sustainable development It would be better that people use more the public transports than their own cars. (They can use for example the streetcar or the bus to go to the work).
Furthermore today, we can find many sites of ride sharing.
They are very interesting solutions because the person saves money but also is going to meet other people.
Besides, in France, a large number of companies pay off half of the transport costs for their employees.

b.    Organic consumption

Today, it is very difficult to influence the consumer by the advertising. In fact the consumer wants to know: where the product comes from? Is it recyclable?
Consumers' large number wants to consume organic products. The organic product compound (made up) of 95 % of biological ingredients. Furthermore there are today many discussions about the industrial food. We can then speak about the fair trade.

The fair trade is an organized social movement which aims at helping the producers of developing countries to make better commercial conditions and promote the sustainable development.
It recommends the payment of a higher price for the exporters as well as the social and environmental standards.
Besides, the fact that the consumers use many products of fair trade is an opportunity to change the modes of production and consumption.

c.                Companies

Today companies try to reconcile their advantages and the environment. In fact, there are many pressures of the consumers who oblige companies to adapt himself and to innovate. Their functioning, their consumption and the working conditions which they offer to their employees, have social, environmental and economic repercussions.

Companies are in the heart of the stakes in the sustainable development. Whatever is their activity, they consume natural resources and raw materials (water, energy) which generated broadcasts (emissions, issues) in the environment.

For example, banks have an important influence on the economy. They have to react on sustainable development. The “Banque Populaire” put in place the green booklet to finance environmental protection. Part of the money collected should be used by the ban to finance green renovation home.
Sustainable development Reviewed by on samedi, janvier 28, 2017 Rating: 5 The resources of the planet not being inexhaustible, the population growth, all the more combined later with that of the individual consump...

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